7257 Suspension fork for bicycles: types, construction and characteristics
Suspension fork for bicycles: types, construction and characteristics

Suspension fork for bicycles: types, construction and characteristics

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Suspension fork for bicycles: types, construction and characteristics

In our time it is difficult to imagine a mountain bike without a system of depreciation (the only exception is the highway and city models).

The shock absorbers make the ride on rough roads more comfortable and greatly improve the handling of the bike. In this article we will tell you about what the types are divided suspension fork for bicycles about the features of their design, but also about what they have advantages and disadvantages.

The benefits of depreciation forks

The main advantage of bikes equipped with forks of depreciation, is increased comfort, and better handling, which is achieved due to the larger tire contact with the road surface.

Thanks to sinking fork front wheel of a Bicycle smoothly and with a minimum number of bumps is bumps and pits. The Bicycle is equipped with suspension fork, even at high speed loses contact with the surface, making it much easier to control. In addition, suspension fork greatly reduce the fatigue Cycling and wear of its components.

Disadvantages of rudders

The disadvantages of Cycling rudders can be attributed to higher than normal rigid forks, mass and partial energy loss that occurs when rocking (this especially strongly it feels when active pedaling and riding uphill). However, manufacturers of modern depreciation forks trying to make them all lighter, and equipped with settings that allow you to adjust the stiffness of the fork, or even block its progress.

Design features rudders

Most rudders are constructed on the principle of the telescope (the smaller tube diameter in the tube is larger). They consist of the so-called “legs” — pipes of larger diameter, inside which is located the shock absorber. “Feet” includes inner tube (fork pistons), and at the junction of the installed cuff to prevent ingress of dust and dirt in the inner part of the plug. For structural reinforcement of suspension fork her “legs” as a rule, are connected with a booster. Also usually on the legs of the fork there are fasteners under the disk or conventional (V-brake) brake connector fastener axis. Two piston fork and steering tube of a Bicycle connects the so-called “crown” fork. Settings suspension fork, usually located on the crown and at the bottom of “legs”.

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Амортизационные вилки для велосипедов типы, конструкция и особенности – конструкция вилок

By linking Bicycle suspension fork can be divided into:

  • Conventional suspension fork is the most common suspension fork with the telescope system (two pipes of different diameter are pushed into each other);
  • Long-travel forks, which are usually made in the form of “dvuhkonusnyh” (“feet” plugs connect two link);
  • Inverted suspension fork — telescope system, but pistons are at the bottom of the forks. This type of design reduces the “nepotushenny ground”, improving the grip, however, such suspension fork, generally more heavy and expensive, and their “pistons” gets more dirt;
  • Specific suspension fork – less common suspension fork for bicycles with mnogopaltsevy and a multi-link system, and fork with one “foot”.

Note that most modern depreciation forks have steering tube with a diameter of 1 and 1/8 inch (standard 1/8 circulated more). This common standard supported by all manufacturers of bicycles, Bicycle frames and steering columns.

Амортизационные вилки для велосипедов типы, конструкция и особенности – конструкция вилок (2)

The stroke length of the fork can be divided into:

  • Short-stroke suspension fork — the course of 25-30 mm (1 inch). Such plugs typically used in low-cost motocross, recreational and urban bicycles;
  • The middle suspension fork — move 50-75 mm (2-3 inches) or move 75-100 mm (3-4 inches). Used in most of the bike for tourism, active riding and racing Cross-Country;
  • Long-travel suspension fork — the course of 120-300 mm (5-12 inches), and more. Plugs of this type are typically used in specialized mounting bike for downhill DownHill.

Types of shock absorbers in the forks of the bikes

Амортизационные вилки для велосипедов типы, конструкция и особенности – типы амортизаторов

Bicycle suspension fork-type shock absorbers can be divided into:

  • Spring;
  • Spring elastomer;
  • Air;
  • Oil-air;
  • Oil-spring.
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Shock-absorber of a Bicycle is a system of damper and spring. “Spring” is designed to dampen shock loads. It can be both steel and pneumatic. The damper dampens the oscillations (due to fast compression and a slow return to the initial state). It can be air, oil or elastomeric.

Амортизационные вилки для велосипедов типы, конструкция и особенности – типы амортизаторов

Steel spring suspension fork

To this type are the cheapest plugs. They have the most simplified design, comprise of one or two springs, located in the “feet”. As a shock absorber such plugs cannot work because they have no damper, but they still add a bit of comfort in riding. As a rule, spring suspension fork cannot be adjusted.

Spring elastomer suspension fork

In such forks in addition to steel springs includes a rod of a polymeric material (elastomer), which acts as a damper (in the cold usually the elastomer hardens and does not work). Such a suspension fork is installed on inexpensive bikes. They do not “flow” oil and not “poison” the air, but have a rather primitive design and low reliability.

Air suspension fork

The role of shock absorber and damper these forks performs the air that is pumped in the depreciation of the plug by means of a special pump. The data fork is pretty light, but under extreme use due to the reduction of the density cuff can begin to leak air.

Oil-air suspension fork

Depreciation in these forks the role of damper performs oil-filled cartridge (open/closed oil bath) and the spring air is pumped by a special pump.

Oil spring suspension fork

Damping in these forks is a cartridge filled with oil, however, the spring is made of steel. Typically, plugs of this type have higher reliability.

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Setting suspension fork

Амортизационные вилки для велосипедов типы, конструкция и особенности – настройка вилкиDepending on the type of plug can have multiple settings. Consider the main ones:

Preload — pre-load

Tincture of spring rate to the sinking fork of the Bicycle. Cheap forks Preload has little effect on the actual spring stiffness. Regulated by an external regulator or replacement of the spring suspension fork.

Rebound — rebound-rebound

Adjustment of the rebound speed suspension fork (speed reset).

Compression — the compression speed

Adjusting the speed of compression of the suspension fork of a Bicycle (reciprocal Rebound).

LockOut – lock

Lock move bike suspension fork (fork becomes “hard”).

Extension Control — adjust the stroke length suspension fork

Lock or adjustable long stroke suspension fork of a Bicycle. Sometimes these settings are imposed on the handlebar.

On a similar principle built and rear shocks for bikes. In addition, in some models of bicycles may have to be shock absorbers built into the seat posts, steering columns, etc.


Now You know what is the difference between suspension fork for bicycles, and can easily choose the model that will meet all your requirements. If you have any questions, ask them in the comments.

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